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Ho Tzu Nyen

The 49th Hexagram, which is a commission meant to commemorate the 40th year anniversary of May 18th in Gwangju. Other than South Korean musician-artists such as Ryu Hankil, Park Minhee and Bek Hyunjin, I worked with a group of animators from a different part of Korea. This project enabled me to engage with Korean history, and I found the resilience and determination of the Korean people over the last century extremely moving.

ကျွန်တော်က စာပိုဒ်တစ်ခုပါ။ ကျွန်ုပ်သည် ဒေတာအစုံမှတဆင့် သင်၏စုဆောင်းမှုသို့ ချိတ်ဆက်ထားပါသည်။ ကျွန်ုပ်ကို အပ်ဒိတ်လုပ်ရန် ဒေတာမန်နေဂျာသို့ သွားပါ။ ဒေတာမန်နေဂျာသည် သင့်ဆိုက်စာမျက်နှာများတွင် အသုံးပြုရန် ဒေတာကို သိမ်းဆည်းသည့်နေရာ သို့မဟုတ် ဖောင်တစ်ခုတင်သွင်းသည့်အခါ ဆိုက်လာရောက်သူများထံမှ ဒေတာစုဆောင်းသည့်နေရာဖြစ်သည်။


ဒေတာမန်နေဂျာရှိ ဤစုစည်းမှုကို အကွက်များနှင့် အကြောင်းအရာအချို့ဖြင့် သတ်မှတ်ပြီးဖြစ်သည်။ ၎င်းကို သင့်ကိုယ်ပိုင်အကြောင်းအရာဖြင့် စိတ်ကြိုက်ပြင်ဆင်ရန်၊ သင်သည် CSV ဖိုင်ကို တင်သွင်းနိုင်သည် သို့မဟုတ် နေရာယူထားသည့် စာသားကို ရိုးရှင်းစွာ တည်းဖြတ်နိုင်သည်။ သင့်ထုတ်ဝေထားသော ဆိုက်တွင် အကြောင်းအရာကို ပြသနိုင်ရန် အခြားစာမျက်နှာဒြပ်စင်များနှင့် ချိတ်ဆက်နိုင်သည့် နယ်ပယ်များကို သင်ထပ်ထည့်နိုင်သည်။ သင်၏အကြောင်းအရာကို တိုက်ရိုက်ထုတ်လွှင့်ရန် စုစည်းမှုကို ထပ်တူပြုရန် မမေ့ပါနှင့်။ ဒေတာကို သိမ်းဆည်းရန် သို့မဟုတ် စုဆောင်းရန် လိုအပ်သလောက် စုဆောင်းမှုအသစ်များစွာကို သင်ထည့်နိုင်သည်။

The 49th Hexagram (2020)

by Ho Tzu Nyen


A lake on fire: the symbol of revolution. 

Thus the person of virtue renews the order of history and makes the significance of the times manifest.

— I-Ching, Commentary on the Image, 49th Hexagram

革命—the Chinese term for revolution consists of two characters. 命 translates as life, destiny and mandate; while 革 evokes change and carries a tinge of bloodshed. Etymologically, 革 refers to animal skin, peeling, and molting. In its early oracle bone script form (甲甲骨文), the character 革 evoked the image of a piece of flayed skin with the animal’s head, limbs, tails, and horns still attached.

The earliest known appearance of the character 革 is in the forty-ninth Hexagram of the I-Ching (易經), also known as The Book of Changes, an ancient Chinese divinatory text and a cornerstone of classical Chinese cosmology, which significantly influenced and was in turn influenced by, the classical cultures of Korea, Japan, and Vietnam. 

The modern sense of 革命 was borrowed from the Japanese, who imbued 革命 (kakumei or かくめい) with its post-English and French Revolution meanings during the Meiji era.

In this work, the artist considers the significance of the Democratic Movement in Gwangju against the backdrop of the numerous uprisings that recurred throughout the last century of Korean history. Using film stills from the many South Korean movies that depicted these uprisings, Ho assembled a set of storyboards — a sequence of illustrations for the purpose of pre-visualizing an animation film.

These storyboards were, in turn, sent to “Screen Breathes Studio”— an animation company based in “The Nation of Morning Calm”— for production. Due to political sensitivities within their context, the animation team could not depict any incidents that directly referenced Korean history. To continue the process, the artist enabled the studio to replace any elements within the storyboards that had been deemed problematic. This is why the figures' identities in the resulting animation work were effaced: people appear masked or wrapped in other skins as they revolt. And this is also why the names of the studio and the country had to be altered. 

Following this surrealist game of exquisite corpses across geopolitical barriers, South Korean artists and musicians Bek Hyunjin and Park Minhee produced two vocal renditions of the forty-ninth Hexagram. The first track is a contemporary take on folk tradition, while the second draws from the tradition of Gagok. These two disparate 

tracks are subsequently brought together by the “digital occult” processes of Ryu Hankil through a series of programs that mesh the two tracks using parameters derived from numerological interpretations of the artwork’s themes and concepts.



Ho Tzu Nyen (b. 1976, Singapore) 

Ho Tzu Nyen makes films, installations, and theatrical performances that often begin as engagements with historical and philosophical texts and artifacts. 

His recent works are populated by metamorphic figures such as the weretiger (One or Several Tigers, 2017), the triple agent (The Nameless, 2015), the traitor (The Mysterious Lai Teck, 2018) under the rubric of The Critical Dictionary of Southeast Asia, an ongoing umbrella project which uses the fuzzy outlines of the heterogeneous and contradictory region as a generator of narratives. He has had one-person exhibitions at Kunstverein in Hamburg (2018), Ming Contemporary Art Museum (Shanghai, 2018), Guggenheim Bilbao (2015), DAAD Galerie (Berlin, 2015), and Mori Art Museum (Tokyo, 2012). He represented Singapore at the 54th Venice Biennale (2011). Recent group exhibitions include the Aichi Triennale (2019), the 12th Gwangju Biennale (2018), and 2 or 3 Tigers at Haus der Kulturen der Welt (Berlin, 2017).

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